Primary purpose of this
publication is to introduce
the current research and
development activity of the 50-year
old AUTÓKUT Corporation. However, at the round anniversary we
obligation to provide a brief review on our past events and results,
significant even from respect of the Hungarian automobilism's history.
The prevailing state and economic policy decisively
determined the activity and the possibilities of this state-established
and even nowadays mainly state-owned
development company. The institution might owe its survival to the
it could always accommodate to the frequently very strict conditions
ambitious expert team could fill the given frames with high-level
creative technical work.
In 1948 the outlines of the soviet-model political
and economical settlement were evolved in Hungary. The severely damaged
bases of the domestic
automotive industry, i.e. the MÁVAG and the MVG (RÁBA), were taken-over
state ownership, then shortly after this the Ikarus Bodywork and
Factory, as well as the Csepel Automobile Factory were founded.
The cold-war preparations accelerated the
production run-up of the automotive industry. In order to assure the
the governing organ of this industry, the Heavy Industrial Center (NIK)
two organizations. For performing independent planning and
documentation tasks in October 1948 the NIK
Central Automotive Design
Office was established under leadership of Dezső Winkler, the designer of the
legendary "Botond" military
The ace engineers of the factories MÁVAG, WM, MVG
(RÁBA) and design center HTI
formed the backbone of the expert team.
In November of the
same year the NIK-Steyr Office was also established for the task to
take over the license of the D-380 type truck purchased from Steyr.
One of the outstanding personalities of the office
was Antal Körtvélyesi. In February of
1950 the administration merging the
two offices established the Vehicle Development Institute (JÁFI). The
department moved to the office building in Béla Bartók street No. 104,
the subsequently established testing
and manufacturing departments
settled in the Csóka street facilities.
1.1 Working Conditions
during the Past 50 Years
Together with change of the
prevailing state and
economic policy our finance conditions,
professional activity and our status occupied in the industry have also
be changed. On basis of these changes three periods of our
activity may be separated:
1.11 Period of Central
Plan Ordinance: 1948-1968
In this period the
institution worked as a
budgetary organ under control and supervision of the government body.
Our tasks were determined centrally and the
conditions for these were assigned during the "plan bargain".
1.12 Period of Relative
Company Independence: 1968-1990
During this we assured our
sales turnover by
contracted works and disposed of this according to the central economic
During this period the name change took
place in 1970. The new name became RESEARCH INSTITUTE of the
AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY (AUTÓKUT). The new economic conditions favored the
development. The testing capacity scenically increased, our
At this time the new engine testing area, the laboratory for vibration
and structure endurance, as well as the new tribology laboratories were
Our design and management sections moved also to
the new office building on the Csóka street.
1.13 Period of Operation
under Market Economic
Conditions, from 1990
Downfall of the COMECON treed
automotive industry. AUTÓKUT also lost the major part of its domestic
and eastern markets, which
could compensate partly only by orders from other relations. Quick
accommodation to the new conditions was
The vehicle manufacturers, first of all the IKARUS
and the Csepel Automobile Factory, took certain activities and
over, chiefly those of vehicle development. We liquidated our idle
In 1994 we altered to share company, while certain
departments (e.g., AUTÓTRIB performing tribological activity) turned
limited liability companies. By the implemented dispositions AUTÓKUT's
has stabilized under the new conditions.
The present organization of AUTÓKUT performs the
Instead of the activity
enforced by the initial and
typically autarchic state
economic policy we rather wanted to align ourselves with the
the present globlising automotive industry. After the Transition we
retained and developed only
the specialties where we can provide services meeting the new
requirements. We detail these in this publication following the
- Tests (vehicle and
(anti-jack-knifing) development and production;
maintenance and service instructions.
2. Professional Activity
2.1 Development of
In the first two decades
following the foundation
the production of the military purpose vehicles formed a significant
our activity due to the cold-war conditions in those days. From these
owing to the high technical level the
following attracted attention:
and test of the Csepel - 130 type squadron carrier and prime mover were
implemented in a very short time in 1950.
Just after producing the type
130, development of
another 6x6 wheel-arrangement military vehicle has started under type
Csepel 300. The cross-country truck was designed on basis of
the Csepel 350 truck family and again using the Csepel B-431 type
engine. The load capacity was 2500 kg off-road and 4000 kg
on-road. The production has already been started in 1952 and finished
in 1954. Totally 750 pieces were produced. Owing to the favorable
performance, it became the
preferred cross-country prime mover both of the army and the
companies, as well as the agriculture.
- The vehicle was of
all-wheel driven and had 1300
- The prime mover,
suitable also for off-road operations, was
manufactured with flexible die-formed frame and 4-cylinder,
in-line gasoline engine type Csepel B-413.
- Production of the
vehicle is started in 1951 and
totally 500 pieces were produced
In the same period we developed the type 800
crawler, which was designed for transporting 2000 kg pay-load and 8000
using 6-cylinder Csepel D-613 type diesel engine. The transmission is
furnished with 5 forward and 1
reverse gears. The track drive is assured by a sprocket wheel
drive located rear in the center and the main drives on the both sides.
The steering is assured by axle shafts through
clutches in the wheel drive. The cab is an enclosed two-seat driver's
cab. The bodywork is of open construction.
In the beginning of the nineteen sixties we played determing role in
a newer military vehicle. In cooperation with the experts of the Csepel
Automotive Factory and the HTI (Military Technical Institute) we
developed an armored
reconnaissance amphibian truck, using partly the assemblies of the
vehicle family. The bodywork, the transfer box and the independent
front suspension were new constructions. The RÁBA factory performed the
After a few year stand in the second half of the
sixties on a newer military assignment we prepared one of our best
creation, the Csepel 566 type, three-axle 5 ton capacity
The main technical data of the vehicle meeting the
up-to-date military requirements are as follows:
The Csepel Automobile Factory
in the seventies
produced approximately 2000(!) vehicles in series.
- Wheel arrangement 6x6
vehicle mass (GVM), max.14700 kg
- Climbing capacity
- Engine power 200 HP
2.2 Development of
Agricultural Tractors and
During the fifties we got
commissions for developing agricultural machines and dump trucks.
Following the nationalization of the DT-413 type
crawler tractor, development of the M18 and M25 type agricultural
tractors was finished.
On basis of this latter type the popular U-28 type
agricultural tractor was developed and produced by the Red Star Tractor
until termination of tractor
production on central regulation. Following the tractor program we
designed the 10 m3 capacity dump
truck. The RÁBA produced the first model under type number
106. After producing several hundred pieces, the Gödöllő
Machine Factory took over this profile, where the modernized G-116 type
produced in series.
2.3 Development of Civil
During our 50-year operation
we developed a number
of civil purpose commercial vehicles (trucks, buses and coaches,
From these the first and most significant work was
the creation of the chassis series
type 500. Based on different versions of this, the Csepel
Automobile Factory and the Ikarus produced such successful models, like
the D-700 truck, the N-510 semi trailer
tractor, as well as the Ikarus 60 urban bus and Ikarus 601
From the beginning of the seventies, development of
the civil purpose commercial vehicles was especially emphasized within
First of all the new capacities established to meet
the new development requirements of the Ikarus played significant role
creation of several new Ikarus types. Such was the development of the
Ikarus 200, 300 and
400 bus family and the participation in designing a few new versions.
In the eighties on commission of the Csepel
Automobile Factory we developed the type 800 bus chassis family, which
a successful product of the factory.
The result of the same period was the design of a
new airport bus, the so-called PALT-bus, embodying new ideas
In spite of its technical solution's success on
several domestic and foreign exhibitions,
the series production did not start. From the second half of the
seventies we were
assigned on developing several special vehicles, bodies and trailers.
Owing to its significance and high technical level,
the CCO-110 type, so-called oil
drilling vehicle developed in cooperation with the Gamma Works emerged
from among these.
The equipment mounted to 3-axle all-wheel-drive
RÁBA chassis served for testing
of the crude-oil and natural gas researches. 5 samples were
produced by AUTÓKUT.
2.4 Development of Main
From the foundation to date,
the work related to
designing, testing and qualifying main
and subcomponents of the commercial
vehicles played significant role in our activity.
2.4.1 Engine Development
The works related to the
diesel engine development
cover the whole period and due to the outstanding importance these will
reviewed in a separate section.
2.4.2 Axle Development
The need for partly creating
a new vehicle type
partly modernizing a given type made the development of the new units
reasonable. An outstanding technical creation in the second
half of the fifties was development of the main components for the
Ikarus 555 type, 16 ton GVM long-distance bus.
Within this work the type 555 independent front
suspension, the 170 HP Csepel 813 type 8-cylinder boxer diesel engine,
Tele-Mekan 6-speed semi-automatic friction-clutch transmission and a De
type 010 type rear axle. The engine, the transmission and the
of the axle were integrated in one block.
During the development a number of new design solutions exceeding the
current level were used. Though the laboratory and vehicle tests
with success the series production of the 555 type bus and its main
not start due to the change in the production
policy. Many results of this development were utilized in
later realized products.
An example of this is the 012 type 10 ton load
capacity rear axle, developed as rigid version of the above mentioned
De Dion system axle. Elements similar to the type 010 drive train
gear and pinion, wheel hub pseudo-planetary gear) were located in a
stamped, welded plate axle body.
year 1959 the Drive Gear Factory, Győr, and its legal successor (RÁBA)
produced the axle in series for more than ten years to full
satisfaction of the
users. From the end of the sixties it application was
replaced by the type 018 rear axle developed for the COMECON
market. During development of the type 018 design, due to the
market objectives, the requirements of many application fields within
ton axle load category had to be considered, which was successful owing
excellent cooperation of AUTÓKUT and RÁBA factory. The design of the
type 018 is very similar to that
of the type 012 with a significant difference, that instead of the
pseudo-planetary gear a real one was used in the wheel hub. Owing to
this a very flexible design was developed considering the input torque,
ratio and the build-in possibilities.
With several billion investments RÁBA established
one of Europe's most modern rear axle factory for the production. The
type 018 rear axle brought outstanding trade success and
established the recent
state-of-the-art axle production for RÁBA. One of our most successful
axles is the type 005 front axle developed at the end of the
The axle body design provided possibility both for
the air and the leaf spring suspension, as well as for application as
"C" on the articulated buses. The different versions of this served
the Hungarian automotive industry for 15 years.
The production had to be reduced, then terminated
due to the relevant COMECON specialization agreement.
In field of the transmissions
determining role in product development of the Hungarian automotive
industry. In this field we always adapted our tasks to the
current engine and vehicle development objectives. The modification in
any of these entails the change
of the transmission parameters, thus such modifications frequently
even the application of the developed type. First we developed
the type 510, 5-speed manual transmission to the
chassis 500. Due to certain design inefficiencies and the
implemented engine development we replaced its application by the
higher torque capacity AS-65 type.
Due to certain design inefficiencies and the
implemented engine development we replaced its application by the
higher torque capacity AS-65 type. The developed AS-75 type was
produced for several
years both for the domestic buses and the trucks.
After purchasing the MAN engine license the need
for an 800-1100 Nm torque capability
transmission satisfying the engine parameters came into prominence
again. The prototypes of the 4, 5 and 6-speed
transmissions designed according to the requirements were prepared.
In spite of the successful test results the series
production failed due to purchasing a ZF license. The development
results were utilized later by our
cooperation at the versions designed on base of the ZF license. In the
beginning of the fifties for Csepel 613 type
125 HP engines we developed the HY 400 type hydro-mechanical
furnished with 3-speed hydro-mechanic torque converter and 2-speed
gear mechanical section. In the middle of the sixties for the
JAFI 619 type
engines we designed the Hidro-Mekan II type automatic transmission with
two-stage torque converter and 2-speed countershaft type friction
mechanical section. In the beginning of the eighties the Csepel
Automobile Factory assigned our Institute to develop the
automatic transmission. On this base we developed the
version equipped with 3HM-1200 type Trilok torque converter
and 3-speed planetary gear mechanical section tailored to the RÁBA-MAN
Though the test results at this version were also
satisfactory, the production failed due to the COMECON specialization,
to above, and lack of the investment's financial conditions.
2.4.4 Development of
Hydraulic Power Steering Systems
During the development
started in 1955, first the
crank version was born, which in a short time was replaced by the 069
recirculating ball steering system.
In the seventies and the eighties the types 059 and
089 were born, which had rack and pinion mechanism and U-joint steering
connection. At each version the control was revolving-plunger
type for which we secured a patent, too.
The production was started in the Machine Tool
Factory, Győr, with the type 032, then for the production of the type
already the Csepel Automobile Factory established a modern production
system. Nearly over 20 years each model of the domestic
automobile production was equipped with this confessedly excellent
also had significant export.
2.5 Development of
of the development of the vehicles and their
main components we exerted significant activity in field of
the components, too. The research
and test activity performed on domestic application of the air spring
suspension had outstanding
Beyond that we implemented successful improvements
on development and industrial application of different brake systems,
cooling systems, silencers, etc.
Belonging to these is the lately developed and by us produced
equipment, which will also be detailed later. Our laboratories perform
ed applied research
activities, too. Especially fruitful of these were our efforts on
the vehicle noise reduction, the passive safety, the engine
peak temperature measurement with
radioactive krypton-technic, as well as the wear and endurance tests,
using radioactive isotop technology. This latter activity is presently
performed by the
AUTÓTRIB Ltd., changed into independent enterprise meanwhile. In the
first two decades following the foundation
we also implemented technological character researches, first off all
automotive application of the ductile cast-iron, on production of the
light-metal piston and the engine bimetal bearings, as well as on
of the induction hardening.
2.6 Development of Test
Equipment and Test-Benches
From the time of the
establishment we produced a
part of our laboratory equipment by own development. Belonging to these
are the different test-benches,
the analyzer car and the computerized data acquisition system. On basis
of the experiences obtained and the
knowledge on designing and testing the vehicle components, the activity
for producing different purpose
test-benches and special equipment on external order came into
existence. Within this frame,
between 1980 and 1995 we produced such equipment with an amount of
million US$ for domestic, but mainly for the
former Soviet customers.
The major part of this
equipment was test-bench for final
acceptance at significant manufacturers.
examples are shown on the next pictures. This activity was terminated
due to insolvency of
the Soviet and later of the Russian market.
2.7 Other Activities
The review of our activity
would not be complete
without mentioning also our other non-research and non-development
exerted for shake of the automotive industry.
From these the followings can be emphasized:
- Expert activity on
behalf of the Hungarian
automotive industry in the UN-ECE "Working Party on the Construction"
WP 29 from 1960 to present date.
- Looking after the
international connections of the
Hungarian automotive industry, representing the industry's interest in
sectoral organs between 1969 and 1986.
- Coordinating the
standardization of the automotive
- Preparing the service
and maintenance instructions
of the automotive industrial products, producing the vehicle and main